If you have been arrested in Sandy Springs for a DUI, our Sandy Springs DUI lawyers are available to discuss your case anytime, including after-hours, weekends, and holidays! Call Chestney & Sullivan today: 404.816.8777
We understand what you are going through. If you are charged with a DUI in Sandy Springs, and you are looking for a DUI lawyer in Sandy Springs to represent you in Sandy Springs Municipal Court or Fulton County State Court, contact Chestney & Sullivan today to discuss your case. Defending DUI cases is all we do. We offer a free consultation.
Sandy Springs Municipal Court is located in the rear of the Morgan Falls Business Park at 7840 Roswell Road, Building 500, Sandy Springs, Georgia 30350. The Sandy Springs Police Department is located in the same Morgan Falls Business Park. If you were arrested for DUI by Sandy Springs Police or Georgia State Patrol in Sandy Springs, usually you will be brought to the Fulton County Jail Alpharetta Annex located at 2565 Old Milton Parkway, Alpharetta, GA 30009. However, the Fulton County Jail North Annex has been closed due to Covid-19 and staffing shortages. Sandy Springs Police have either been using the Smyrna Jail or transporting arrested drivers to the main Fulton County Jail on Rice Street in Atlanta. If you were transported to the Rice Street Jail, it is likely your Sandy Springs DUI case will start in Fulton County State Court instead of Sandy Springs Municipal Court. The Fulton County North Jail Annex is scheduled to be reopened this summer.
Our Sandy Springs DUI lawyers appear in Sandy Springs Municipal Court regularly. The judges in Sandy Springs Municipal Court rotate their appearances on the bench. Currently, those judges are Judge Donald Schaefer, Joseph Burford, Sharon Dickson, Marcie Ernst, and Candiss Howard. The solicitor was Steve Ellis, who was contracted by the City of Sandy Springs to prosecute your Sandy Springs driving under the influence (DUI) case. However, Mr. Ellis left his position as a solicitor in Sandy Springs, and a new solicitor, Katherine Hoffer, has taken to take his place. Sandy Springs Municipal Court is a court of “limited jurisdiction,” meaning that they do not have jury trials there for DUI cases, however Driving Under the Influence cases can now be kept in municipal court for a “bench trial,” meaning a trial where a judge decides a case over a jury. Most of our cases are transferred to Fulton County State Court for jury trials or bench trials if we are not able to negotiate a favorable outcome in Sandy Springs Municipal Court. Depending on the case, however, we do occasionally opt for bench trials in municipal court instead of Fulton County State Court. Many factors go into deciding whether to keep a case in municipal court for trial, as giving up your constitutional right to a jury trial is an important right to be given up.
Often, a jury trial is the best possible option to avoid a DUI conviction in your Sandy Springs DUI case. Fulton State Court, located in the Fulton County Justice Center, currently has ten state court judges. Your case will be assigned to one of the ten judges once the Fulton State Court Solicitor files your case with the Fulton County State Court Clerk’s Office. Because each State Court judge handles their caseloads differently, again, Sandy Springs DUI lawyers must know how each particular courtroom operates. The Sandy Springs DUI lawyers at Chestney & Sullivan try cases in Fulton County regularly. Most of the cases we handle are contested in Fulton County State Court located in the Fulton County Justice Center. Because we frequently contest DUI cases in Fulton County State Court, we are familiar with the judges and prosecutors who will be handling your Sandy Springs DUI case.
The Sandy Springs Traffic Unit has officers that make up their DUI Task Force or H.E.A.T. Unit. The Traffic Unit operates in conjunction with the Governor’s Office of Highway Safety. The Sandy Springs DUI Task Force, under the Special Operations Traffic Unit, receives grants to supplement its budget through Federal and State funding, the Governor’s Office of Highway Safety including the H.E.A.T. program (Highway Enforcement of Aggressive Traffic), and other sources. The primary goal of the Sandy Springs DUI Task Force/H.E.A.T. Unit is to combat impaired drivers/drunk drivers. The DUI Task Force frequently utilizes programs through the Governor’s Office of Highway Safety such as Operation Zero Tolerance, Click it or Ticket, 100 Days of Summer Heat, Thunder Task Force, and others. We also see DUI arrests in Sandy Springs made by the Georgia State Patrol Nighthawks (DUI task force), and if there is a major accident, Georgia State Patrol will also bring in their “SCRT” team (Specialized Collision and Reconstruction Team).
In Sandy Springs, the DUI Task Force/H.E.A.T. Unit regularly patrol Roswell Road, Abernathy Road, Interstate 285, and Georgia 400 corridors.
The Sandy Springs DUI Task Force, like all Sandy Springs police officers, has received a minimum of 16 hours of DUI training in the police academy. Most Sandy Springs DUI Task Force officers trained have received an additional 24-hour standardized field sobriety course endorsed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Some Sandy Springs DUI Task Force officers have received additional DUI training such as ARIDE (Advanced Roadside Impaired Driving Enforcement), or DRE (Drug Recognition Expert). All of the Sandy Springs DUI Task Force officers are certified by the Georgia Bureau of Investigation to operate the Intoxilyzer 5000. Most, if not all the Sandy Springs DUI Task Force/H.E.A.T. Unit officers are certified on Georgia’s newest breath testing instrument, the Intoxilyzer 9000.
Current members of the Sandy Springs DUI Task Force include Officer John Head and other officers. Officer Samuel Gilmore, (a former long-time Atlanta Police DUI Task Force officer) also makes many DUI arrests, however, Officer John Head by far makes the most Driving Under the Influence arrests in Sandy Springs. On occasion, if you refuse to submit to a state-administered test after you were arrested, Officer Head will seek a search warrant to draw your blood for testing by the Georgia Bureau of Investigation (GBI).
Our DUI attorneys know how to challenge a Sandy Springs DUI case. We are trained in Standardized Field Sobriety (SFST) evaluations and have received training on the operation and limitations of the Intoxilyzer 5000 and 9000. We currently own three Intoxilyzer 5000 breath testing devices. Mr. Sullivan was certified in Standardized Field Sobriety evaluations by members of the Conyers Police Department and Rockdale County Sheriff’s Office. One of the benefits of investigating a Sandy Springs DUI case is that most of their patrol vehicles are equipped with video and audio. Their video equipment has some features similar to a DVR or TVO that many people have at home for their TVs. Their equipment is continuously recording, but will not preserve anything until the officer either manually activates the recording, or the officer activates his emergency equipment (lights). Then the video will preserve somewhere between 30 and 60 seconds before activation and typically Sandy Springs officers will run their video until their investigation is complete. Some will run their videos until they reach the jail. Videos can be obtained through the court process.
How our skilled Sandy Springs DUI lawyers build a successful defense in your DUI case:
To build a strong DUI defense in Georgia, your Sandy Springs DUI lawyer starts by meeting with you about your Sandy Springs DUI case and learning as much as possible from you about what happened. Using this core information, we can look for more evidence to help our defense by using specialized resources as needed to determine if all testing and other details of your Sandy Springs DUI arrest were accurate and legal. Our investigator gathers information, videos, 911 calls, possible surveillance videos, police reports, documents of road/scene conditions, and more. There are also times when we use the services of toxicologists, accident reconstructionists, private investigators, breath test/field sobriety experts, medical professionals, and video illustrators, to name a few, to help build a solid defense in your Sandy Springs DUI case. Our Sandy Springs DUI lawyers then analyze your case starting with whether the initial stop or reason why the police were involved was legal. We also look for suppression issues with the admissibility of field sobriety tests or state chemical tests (breath, blood, or urine tests). Our DUI attorneys meet as a group to develop strategies on how to best conduct the license suspension hearings, preliminary/committal hearings, motion hearings, and trials. Our team approach is an effective way to ensure we are prepared to defend your Sandy Springs DUI. All of our lawyers are involved in your case. Our DUI defense lawyers have regular meetings on all of our cases, so the lead Sandy Springs DUI lawyer can get as much input as possible in developing a winning strategy in your Sandy Springs DUI case.
Can I just enter a guilty plea myself and avoid hiring an experienced Sandy Springs DUI defense lawyer?
There is a saying that “a person who represents himself has a fool for a client.” DUI cases are one of the most serious cases that are prosecuted in Sandy Springs Municipal Court or Fulton County State Court. Even if you think you are guilty and may not want to fight your case all the way, there are matters that a skilled Sandy Springs DUI lawyer is better able to handle than someone representing him or herself. Here are some reasons why you may consider hiring our Sandy Springs DUI attorneys rather than representing yourself:
- You can put your driving privileges in jeopardy if you simply go to court and enter a guilty plea by yourself. If you have been arrested by a Sandy Springs DUI officer (or any Georgia police officer), you should have been served notice of a license suspension action. If you enter a guilty plea without properly addressing the license suspension action, you will not be able to get a limited permit (if you are eligible to get one at all) until and unless the license suspension action is conducted properly.
- If your license is suspended for refusing the Sandy Springs DUI officer’s chemical test from losing an administrative hearing or failing to address a license suspension action within 30 days from the date of your arrest, your Georgia driver’s license or driving privileges will be suspended for a year with NO PERMIT. Properly coordinating and handling the Sandy Springs DUI criminal charges and the license suspension action can improve your chances of being able to drive.
- Other charges in addition to your Sandy Springs DUI charge may be more serious and carry more punishment than the DUI charge itself.
- Sometimes the prosecutor gives a bad plea offer. Even if you decide not to contest your case, an experienced Sandy Springs DUI attorney who is familiar with Sandy Springs Municipal Court, as well as Fulton County State Court or Superior Court, can assess a plea offer to determine if it is worth taking or moving your case to state court, or you may decide to take your case to trial.
- If you decide to represent yourself at trial, the Georgia Rules of Evidence still apply to you. Lawyers go to law school for years to learn these rules and you will be at the mercy of a skilled prosecutor and judge if you are not careful.
Administrative License Suspension
IMPORTANT INFORMATION CONCERNING YOUR DRIVER’S LICENSE WHILE YOUR SANDY SPRINGS DUI CRIMINAL CHARGES ARE PENDING IN COURT
Besides your DUI criminal case pending in Sandy Springs, you are likely facing an administrative license suspension. There is only a limited time to request this separate hearing with the Georgia Office of State Administrative Hearings to preserve your driving privileges. Whether you refused the Sandy Springs DUI officer’s chemical test, or the breath test results indicated an alcohol concentration above the legal limit, Georgia law requires your Sandy Springs DUI officer to serve you notice of an administrative license suspension. If you have been arrested by Sandy Springs Officers John Head or Leon Millholland, you can be assured that they initiated a license suspension action against you. The notice that is used is called a DDS-1205 form. This form is either yellow or white and the officer may have had you sign it. Sometimes this paperwork gets lost (you may have received it, but may have been misplaced, or it may have been lost at the jail).
- Our Sandy Springs DUI lawyers strongly suggest that you set up an online account with the Georgia Department of Driver Services to monitor the status of your driver’s license: https://dds.georgia.gov/online-services
Regardless of whether you have received a DDS-1205 form from your Sandy Springs DUI officer, you need to understand that you only have 30 days to request a hearing to preserve your driving privileges or waive your hearing through the Georgia Department of Driver Services by opting for an ignition interlock device permit.
Three tracks you can take [beware of choosing without the advice of an experienced Sandy Springs DUI lawyer]:
- Do nothing within 30 days of the date of your Sandy Springs DUI arrest: In most cases, we do not recommend this path. If you do nothing and your officer initiated an administrative license suspension action, then on the 46th day after the date of your Sandy Springs DUI arrest, your driving privileges will automatically be suspended by the Georgia Department of Driver Services for one year with no permit to drive. Even if you did not receive the DDS-1205 form as a result of your Sandy Springs DUI arrest, our Sandy Springs DUI lawyers still recommend that you take some sort of action instead of doing nothing. However, there are limited circumstances where we recommend our clients do nothing regarding a license suspension action, but those circumstances are rare.
- Request an administrative hearing: This is the traditional track that has been the law for many years now, except now there are thirty days instead of ten business days to take action. This track is where a request for an administrative hearing is submitted to the Georgia Department of Driver Services challenging the Sandy Springs DUI officer’s decision to administratively suspend your driver’s license for testing above Georgia’s “per se” legal limit for alcohol concentration, or for refusing your Sandy Springs DUI officer’s request for a state-administered chemical test of your breath, blood, urine, or other bodily substances. There is a $150 filing fee made payable to the Dept. of Driver Services for DDS to process the hearing request.
- Properly waive your right to an administrative hearing in your Sandy Springs DUI case and have an ignition interlock device (IID) installed: This track came into effect July 1, 2017. This allows the first DUI arrest in five years for drivers to be able to drive in the state of Georgia and fight their Sandy Springs DUI criminal case without losing the privilege to drive. It comes with a cost of course. It involves you waiving your right to an administrative hearing through the Georgia Department of Driver Services and you will need to install an ignition interlock device on your vehicle for a minimum of 120 days if you tested over the “per se” legal limit, or one solid year of having the ignition interlock device installed in your vehicle (and driving under the confines of an ignition interlock permit) if you refused the Sandy Springs DUI officer’s request for a state-administered chemical test. If you choose this track, we highly advise that you install the ignition interlock first, then go to DDS within 30 days from the date of arrest to obtain the permit. There are obvious concerns and pitfalls in choosing this track. For many people, the stigma of having the ignition interlock device installed in their vehicle is just not worth it. The ignition interlock device is also expensive: it requires an installation fee as well as a monthly monitoring fee. And if you remove it while under your ignition interlock permit, tamper with it, or it tests positive, your permit to drive may be revoked for six months – meaning no driving at all. In addition to waiving your right to an administrative hearing and having an ignition interlock device installed on your vehicle, you must also meet the following conditions:
- An application for the permit must be made with DDS within 30 days of the person being served notice of the administrative license suspension (ALS) by the Sandy Springs DUI arresting officer through the DDS-1205 form (usually 30 days from the date of arrest), or—in the event of a DDS-1205S form—within 30 days of receiving such notice of the ALS from DDS (from a blood test result that was not procured by a search warrant);
- The ALS cannot stem from a motor vehicle accident involving fatalities or serious injuries;
- The person must be licensed in Georgia and not have any other suspensions, cancellations, or revocations against his or her Georgia driver’s license;
- If the person holds a Georgia commercial driver’s license (CDL), he or she must downgrade to a non-commercial Georgia driver’s license to obtain and maintain the permit;
- The person cannot have any prior convictions for DUI in the 5 years preceding application for the permit. If there is a DUI arrest with a DUI conviction within 5 years of the current Sandy Springs DUI arrest, the person can still opt for track 2 – requesting an administrative hearing, or track 1 – do nothing at all;
- The person must surrender his or her Georgia driver’s license, either to the Sandy Springs DUI arresting officer at the time of arrest or to DDS before issuance of the permit; and,
- The person must pay a $25.00 permit fee to the Georgia Department of Driver Services.
The period a person must successfully maintain the ignition interlock device on their vehicle will be based on whether he or she consents to or refuses the state-administered chemical test requested by the Sandy Springs DUI arresting officer. A person who consents to the state-administered chemical test and opts for the new permit will be required to successfully maintain the ignition interlock device on their vehicle for 4 months. If he or she is subsequently acquitted of the underlying Sandy Springs DUI charge, or the underlying DUI charge is dismissed or reduced, the ignition interlock device may be removed at no cost and the driver’s license may be replaced. A person who refuses the state-administered chemical test and opts for the new permit will be required to successfully maintain the ignition interlock device on their vehicle for 12 months, regardless of the outcome of the underlying Sandy Springs DUI charge.
Successful maintenance of the ignition interlock device must be evidenced by the permit holder to DDS through the production of satisfactory monthly monitoring reports before DDS removes the ignition interlock restriction from the permit. A permit may be renewed for a fee of $5.00 if additional time is needed for the permit holder to comply with the terms of the ignition interlock device, but it may only be renewed one time once the permit holder becomes eligible to reinstate his or her driver’s license. Following the designated term of successful compliance, the ignition interlock device restriction may be removed from the limited driving permit in person at a DDS customer service center for a fee of $100.00 (or $90.00 if removal of the restriction is requested by mail or other approved alternate means). The removal fee is in addition to any reinstatement fee that may be required.
As the title of the ignition interlock device limited permit suggests, there are limitations on where you can drive while on the IID permit:
- Going to his or her place of employment or performing the normal duties of his or her occupation;
- Receiving scheduled medical care or obtaining prescription drugs;
- Attending a college or school at which he or she is regularly enrolled as a student;
- Driving to regularly scheduled sessions or meetings of treatment support organizations for persons who have an addiction or abuse problems related to alcohol or other drugs, which organizations are recognized by the commissioner;
- Going to under court order any driver education or improvement school or alcohol or drug program or course approved by the court which entered the judgment of conviction resulting in suspension of his driver’s license or by the commissioner;
- Appearing in court, reporting to community supervision, juvenile probation, or Article 6 of Chapter 8 of Title 42 probation office, reporting to a community supervision officer, county or Department of Juvenile Justice probation officer, or probation officer serving under Article 6 of Chapter 8 of Title 42, or performing community service;
- transporting an immediate family member who does not hold a valid driver’s license for work, to obtain medical care or prescriptions, or to school;
- Attending any program, event, treatment, or activity ordered by a judge presiding in an accountability court, as such term is defined in Code Section 15-1-18; or
- Going for monthly monitoring visits with the permit holder’s ignition interlock device service provider.
Contact us today to discuss your DUI case with our dedicated Sandy Springs DUI lawyers at 404.816.8777. Our DUI defense lawyers are experienced in handling license suspension actions. We can review your case and prepare a strategy for your Sandy Springs DUI criminal charges and your license suspension action.
So I made a proper request for a license suspension hearing in my Sandy Springs DUI case, what happens next?
The license suspension action is a civil action separate from your Sandy Springs DUI criminal charges and only deals with your license or privilege to drive in this state. The administrative license suspension action is litigated by a completely separate court from your Sandy Springs DUI criminal case. Once the Georgia Department of Driver Services processes your request for a hearing, your case is then sent to the Georgia Office of State Administrative Hearings (OSAH) where a hearing will be scheduled in front of a judge from that agency. Typically a hearing date is set roughly 60 days from the date of your Sandy Springs DUI arrest. Once a hearing is requested, the Department of Driver Services will extend your driving privileges until there is an order entered from an OSAH judge.
The scope of the hearing is very limited:
At a hearing, the OSAH judge has a very limited role in deciding your case. The judge is bound by law to only look at certain statutory factors to determine whether or not those statutory factors were met based on the evidence presented at the hearing. That is it. The judge does not look at your criminal or driver’s history. The judge is not concerned about your job, transportation issues with your children’s school or daycare, or any other hardship you may if your license is suspended. The judge’s only role in a license suspension hearing is to determine if the following factors were met:
- Whether the Sandy Springs DUI law enforcement officer had reasonable grounds to believe the person was driving or in actual physical control of a moving motor vehicle while under the influence of alcohol or a controlled substance and was lawfully placed under arrest for violating Code Section 40-6-391 (the DUI statute); or
- Was the driver was involved in a motor vehicle accident or collision resulting in serious injury or fatality; and
- Whether at the time of the request for the test or tests the Sandy Springs DUI officer informed the person of the person’s Implied Consent rights and the consequences of submitting or refusing to submit to such test; and
- Did the driver refuse the test; or whether a test or tests were administered and the results indicated an alcohol concentration of 0.08 grams or more or, for a person under the age of 21, an alcohol concentration of 0.02 grams or more or, for a person operating or having actual physical control of a commercial motor vehicle, an alcohol concentration of 0.04 grams or more; and
- Were the test or tests were properly administered by an individual possessing a valid permit issued by the Division of Forensic Sciences of the Georgia Bureau of Investigation on an instrument approved by the Division of Forensic Sciences or a test conducted by the Division of Forensic Sciences, including whether the machine at the time of the test was operated with all of its electronic and operating components prescribed by its manufacturer properly attached and in good working order, which shall be required. A copy of the operator’s permit showing that the operator has been trained on the particular type of instrument used and one of the original copies of the test results or, where the test is performed by the Division of Forensic Sciences, a copy of the crime lab report shall satisfy the requirements of this subparagraph.
How is the OSAH hearing conducted?
The judge will enforce the Georgia Rules of Evidence and the Administrative Rules of Procedure, similar to other court proceedings. Because the burden is on your Sandy Springs DUI officer to establish that the statutory factors were met, the Sandy Springs DUI officer testifies first. Some jurisdictions allow the officer to have help from the prosecutor’s office, or if the officer is a Georgia State Trooper, an attorney paid by the State of Georgia assists the officer on direct examination. The Sandy Springs DUI officer is then subject to cross-examination. There are times when we may decide to place our clients or other witnesses on the stand for direct examination. Our witnesses would then be subject to cross-examination from the other side. Once the testimony and presentation of the evidence are finished, each side can make a closing argument. The judge will then make a decision typically within 5 business days and will transmit that decision to the parties and the Georgia Department of Driver Services. The decision will also be posted online. If there is an error in how the judge ruled, there is an appellate process available to review the court’s decision.
What happens if I win the hearing?
If the judge finds that one or more of the applicable statutory factors above are not met, then the judge will issue an order reversing the suspension action, transmit it to the Georgia Department of Driver Services, and then Georgia DDS will delete the license suspension action off your driver’s history (no administrative license suspension). This does not mean that the Sandy Springs criminal charges are being dismissed, but an OSAH hearing can be a great tool to gain an advantage in your Sandy Springs DUI criminal case.
What happens if I lose my hearing?
If the judge finds that all of the applicable statutory factors were met by a preponderance of the evidence (a lower standard of proof than beyond a reasonable doubt), then the judge will issue an order affirming the license suspension action and will transmit the order to the Georgia Department of Driver Services, who will then impose the license suspension. Again, because the burden on the Sandy Springs DUI officer is so low to meet in these license suspension hearings, there is a good possibility that your license may be suspended, but we still may be able to gain an advantage in the criminal case based on testimony from the license suspension hearing. If the judge committed an error in a ruling, the decision can be appealed. Also, if your Sandy Springs DUI charge is reduced, or dismissed, or you are found not guilty, the suspension is lifted and deleted from your driver’s history as a matter of law.
Can I handle the license suspension hearing myself in my Sandy Springs DUI case?
Because a license suspension action from a Georgia DUI arrest is a very complex subject that even many lawyers don’t understand, we strongly encourage you to contact our attorneys right away to discuss your Sandy Springs DUI case. There are simply too many variables that can impact your driving privileges to be discussed here without knowing the specific facts of your case and your prior criminal history. Remember, you only have 30 days to request a license suspension hearing through the Georgia Department of Driver Services.
A heads up for boaters, the Georgia Department of Natural Resources annually institutes its Operation Dry Water program targeting impaired boaters that will run this year during the Fourth of July weekend through July 7. As a warning to drivers, the Governor’s Office of Highway Safety mobilizes sober driving campaigns throughout the year. The Georgia State Patrol and the Sandy Springs Police Department will conduct their 100 Days of Summer H.E.A.T campaign from May 13 through Labor Day (September 2). Operation Zero Tolerance will run from June 24 through the July 4 holiday weekend until July 7. The Drive Sober or Get Pulled Over program will be enforced from August 14 through September 2, and again from mid-December through January 1 (New Year’s Day). GOHS and Sandy Springs Police are constantly warning on social media about the dangers of drinking and driving, especially during major events and holidays. Sandy Springs police officers will be patrolling for impaired drivers.
Here are Facebook and X (formerly Twitter) posts from the Georgia Governor’s Office of Highway Safety (Georgia GOHS) and NHTSA to drive sober not drive under the influence and to use a designated driver:
Don’t let your drive home become a cautionary tale. It’s never safe to get behind the wheel after drinking. Designate a sober driver before the party. #BuzzedDriving is drunk driving. pic.twitter.com/lEwIp1QtgQ
— Georgia Governor’s Office of Highway Safety (@gohsgeorgia) February 16, 2024
Sandy Springs Police are acutely aware of the dangers of drunk driving as one of their own was struck by a suspected impaired driver :
Before 1AM, an SSPD Officer was on GA-400 South @ Windsor Pkwy on a traffic stop when his patrol vehicle was struck by an unrelated vehicle. The Officer was inside his patrol vehicle with its emergency equipment activated and fully visible on the right shoulder. Driver was DUI pic.twitter.com/7Nln2VlXxC
— Sandy Springs Police (@SandySprings_PD) April 3, 2021
Call our experienced Sandy Springs DUI lawyers today:
If you are facing a Sandy Springs DUI charge, or license suspension action, or have been ticketed for a serious traffic offense, contact our experienced Sandy Springs DUI lawyers today. We will meet with you free of charge to discuss your options, and provide advice based on our experience in the court where your case will be heard. Call us today at 404.816.8777
Below is an informational video produced by the Sandy Springs Municipal Court on court proceedings:
Map of the Sandy Springs Municipal Court location: